Grade 7 Academic Situations
Ratios and Proportional Relationships
Key Points:
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Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions

Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems.
Common Struggles:

Students often find it confusing to compute unit rates when the ratios involve fractions, particularly when dividing by a fraction is required.

Applying proportional relationships in multistep ratio and percent problems can be challenging, especially when students are required to integrate several mathematical concepts.
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Consequences:
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Difficulty comprehending and applying proportional reasoning in various contexts, such as solving problems involving percentages, rates, and slopeintercept form in linear equations, which are pivotal in Grade 8 math.
Solutions:
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Use realworld examples to teach ratios and proportions to make these concepts more tangible.

Encourage the use of visual aids, like tape diagrams or double number lines, to help students grasp the comparison between quantities.
The Number System
Key Points:

Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.
For example, 1/2(3/2)= 2, 1/2×3=3/2
Common Struggles:

Integrating Previous Knowledge with New Concepts

Keeping Track of Sign Rules

Transitioning Between Representations
Consequences:
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Struggles with operations on rational numbers and working with irrational numbers, which are crucial for algebraic manipulations and understanding the real number system in Grade 8.
Solutions:
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Use number lines and visual models to deepen understanding of positive and negative numbers, fractions, and decimals.
Expressions and Equations
Key Points:

Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.

Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context .

Solve multistep reallife and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals)

Use variables to represent quantities in a realworld or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
Common Struggles:

Using Properties of Operations

Dealing with the multiple steps and the operations of positive and negative rational numbers (whole numbers, fractions, decimals) can be overwhelming.

The concept of using variables to represent quantities and constructing equations or inequalities to solve problems is a new abstraction for many students.
Consequences:
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Challenges in manipulating algebraic expressions, understanding linear equations, and analyzing functional relationships, all of which are fundamental in Grade 8 math for building towards algebra.
Solutions:
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Challenges in manipulating algebraic expressions, understanding linear equations, and analyzing functional relationships, all of which are fundamental in Grade 8 math for building towards algebra.
Geometry
Key Points:
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Solve scale drawing issues of geometric figures, including calculating real lengths and areas from a scale drawing and resizing it.

Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions.

Describe 2D figures from slicing 3D, like right rectangular prisms and pyramids.

Angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.

Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems

Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multistep problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.

Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two and threedimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms.
Common Struggles:

The concept of scaling up or down, while maintaining proportions, can be confusing.

Find it difficult to apply formulas for the area and circumference of a circle correctly in various contexts.
For example,When asked to find the area of a circle with a diameter of 10 cm, a common mistake might be to use the diameter instead of the radius in the formula, leading to an incorrect answer.

In a figure with multiple lines and angles, students might struggle to identify pairs of supplementary angles or to apply the concept that vertical angles are equal.
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Consequences:
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Difficulties with understanding and applying geometric concepts, including angle relationships, area, volume, and surface area calculations, and problems involving scale drawings, which become more complex in Grade 8.
Solutions:
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â€‹Incorporate handson activities, such as creating models or using interactive geometry software, to explore geometric concepts. Drawing and measuring shapes can also help students visualize and understand geometric relationships and calculations.
Statistics and Probability
Key Points:

Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations.

Understand what the probability of a chance event is.

Know the relationship between the probability of a chance event and the approximate relative frequency.

Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events.

Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.
Common Struggles:

Distinguishing Between Theoretical and Experimental Probability

Calculating Compound Probabilities
Consequences:
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Problems in analyzing and interpreting data, understanding probability models, and making inferences, which are essential skills in Grade 8 for supporting evidencebased arguments and understanding statistical variability.
Solutions:
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Engage students with projects involving data collection, graph creation, and analysis from their surroundings or interests. Simulate probability experiments to illustrate the concepts of chance and variability in a tangible way.